Canto 10: śreṇyābhigamanaḥ
Śreṇya Drawing Near

Introduction

Once again the title is a person and a verb, and this time the person is ostensibly the subject of the verb. The person is Śreṇya, also known as King Bimbisāra, ruler of the ancient kingdom of Magadha. The verb abhigamana ostensibly describes Śrenya approaching the Prince with a view to persuading him to change his mind.

One alternative reading of the Canto title is as a co-ordinative (dvandva) compound of two elements: 1. Śreṇya and 2. Drawing Near. In this reading, Śreṇya is Śreṇya, and the one getting closer is the bodhisattva who, as in Canto 13, simply sits in lotus, as immovably as Mount Kailāsa.

At the same time there is a sense in which, below the surface, ironically, the words of Śreṇya himself get closer and closer to the truth, so that by the closing verses of the Canto Śreṇya is describing how people who have, in the true sense, grown old, as if they have crossed beyond a wasteland, finally breathe easy.

 

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sa rāja-vatsaḥ pṛthu-pīna-vakṣās tau havya-mantrādhikṛtau vihāya /
uttīrya gangāṁ pracalat taraṅgāṁ śrīmad-gṛhaṁ rājagṛhaṁ jagāma // 10.1 //

The king’s beloved boy, whose chest was broad and full, after he had got rid of those two, the heads of havya and of mantra, oblations and machinations, / Crossed the billowing Ganges and went to Rāja-gṛha, “Kingsbury,” with its splendid residences. Rāja-gṛha was the capital of Magadha, the kingdom ruled at that time by Śreṇya, also known as Bimbi-sāra. 01 // 10.1//

śailaiḥ su-guptaṁ ca vibhūṣitaṁ ca dhṛtaṁ ca pūtaṁ ca śivais tapodaiḥ /
pañcācalāṅkaṁ nagaraṁ prapede śāntaḥ svayambhūr iva nāka-pṛṣṭham // 10.2 //

Well guarded, and beautified, by mountains; preserved, and purified, by healing hot springs; / In the hook of five hills, stood the city he entered – like ‘Self-Existing’ Brahmā, Conventionally Svayam-bhū means either Brahmā or Śiva – or sometimes the other of the three gods in the Hindu triad, Viṣṇu. 02 unperturbed, entering the heights of heaven. //10.2//

gāmbhīryam ojaś ca niśāmya tasya vapuś ca dīptaṁ puruṣān atītya /
visismaye tatra janas tadānīṁ sthāṇu-vratasyeva vṛṣa-dhvajasya // 10.3 //

Perceiving the depth and strength of that man, and the shining form which outshone men, / The people there at that time were filled with wonder – as if [perceiving the depth and strength and shining form] of the one, unmoving in his vow of practice, whose emblem is the bull. The god whose emblem is the bull most probably means Śiva. 03 //10.3//

taṁ prekṣya yo ’nyena yayau sa tasthau yas tatra tasthau pathi so ’nvagacchat /
drutaṁ yayau yaḥ sa jagāma dhīraṁ yaḥ kaś-cid āste sma sa cotpapāta // 10.4 //

On seeing him, whoever was going the other way stood still; whoever was there in the road standing still, followed along; / whoever was going hurriedly, went steadily; and anybody who was sitting, sprang up. Ostensible meaning: they stopped sitting and got up. Hidden meaning: they carried on sitting, and went up more. 04 //10.4//

kaś-cit tam ānarca janaḥ karābhyāṁ sat-kṛtya kaś-cic chirasā vavande /
snigdhena kaś-cid vacasābhyananda naivaṁ jagāmāpratipūjya kaś-cit // 10.5 //

Some people honoured him with joined hands; some properly paid homage, using their head; They prostrated themselves, bowing their head to the floor; and/or they used their head (for something other than a hat-rack) and paid attention to what they were doing. 05 / some sang his praises with devoted words. Nobody, in this way, went without showing religious reverence. Ostensibly Aśvaghoṣa is praising all the townsfolk for the attitude of religious devotion. Below the surface, is he ironically bemoaning the absence of any individual who was different (anyaḥ or anyā)? 06 //10.5//

taṁ jihriyuḥ prekṣya vicitra-veṣāḥ prakīrṇa-vācaḥ pathi maunam īyuḥ /
dharmasya sākṣād iva saṁnikarṣe na kaś-cid anyāya-matir babhūva // 10.6 //

Fancy dressers when they saw him felt ashamed. Random chatterers on the road fell silent. / As when in the physical presence of dharma, The ostensible meaning of sākṣāt (ablative of sa [possessing] + akṣa [eye]) is “before one’s own eyes.” Below the surface, dharmasya sākṣāt suggests realizing the dharma not only on the outside, but as one’s own practice of sitting upright. 07 nobody had an irregular thought. //10.6//

anya-kriyāṇām api rāja-mārge strīṇāṁ nṛṇāṁ vā bahu-māna-pūrvam /
taṁ deva-kalpaṁ nara-deva-sūnuṁ nirīkṣamāṇā na tatarpa dṛṣṭiḥ // 10.7 //

Though on the royal road they were engaged in different work, Ostensibly they were otherwise occupied, engaged in miscellaneous tasks.Anya-kriyāṇām ostensibly means “other tasks,” but in the hidden meaning, the labours of an individual who is different, the actions of a non-buddha. 08 adoring women and men beheld him, / The god-like son of a man-god, but satisfaction was not realized by their admiring gaze. //10.7//

bhruvau lalāṭaṁ mukham īkṣaṇe vā vapuḥ karau vā caraṇau gatiṁ vā /
yad eva yas tasya dadarśa tatra tad eva tasyātha babandha cakṣuḥ // 10.8 //

Eyebrows, forehead, mouth, or organs of seeing; body or hands; feet or manner of going – / Whatever aspect of him any of them looked at, to that very target her or his eye was bound. //10.8//

dṛṣṭvā ca sorṇa-bhruvam āyatākṣaṁ jvalac-charīraṁ śubha-jāla-hastam /
taṁ bhikṣu-veṣaṁ kṣiti-pālanārhaṁ saṁcukṣubhe rājagṛhasya lakṣmīḥ // 10.9 //

On seeing him, moreover, with the circle of hair between his eyebrows and with his widely extending eyes, with his shining body and beautiful webbed hands, / On seeing in a beggar’s garb him who was fit to rule the earth, the Royal Grace of Rājagṛha Rājagṛhasya lakṣmīh (f.) is enigmatic. Among the meanings of lakṣmī are 1. grace, and 2. the Good Genius or Fortune of a king personified (and often regarded as a rival of his queen). Simply thinking, the appearance of the bodhisattva-prince created a stir. 09 was ruffled. //10.9//

śreṇyo ’tha bhartā magadhājirasya bāhyād vimānād vipulaṁ janaugham /
dadarśa papraccha ca tasya hetuṁ tatas tam asmai puruṣaḥ śaśaṁsa // 10.10 //

And so Śreṇya, The ruler of the kingdom of Magadha, also known as Bimbi-sāra. 10 master of the Magadha domain, from an outer palace turret, saw the great throng, / And inquired into the motive behind it. Then a man conveyed that [motive] to him – //10.10//

jñānaṁ paraṁ vā pṛthivī-śriyaṁ vā viprair ya ukto ’dhigamiṣyatīti /
sa eṣa śākyādhipates-tanū-jo nirīkṣyate pravrajito janena // 10.11 //

“Ultimate knowing, or else earthly power, inspired sages said he would realize: / It is he, the son of the Śākya ruler, who, having gone forth, is being admired by the people.” //10.11//

tataḥ śrutārtho manasāgatārtho rājā babhāṣe puruṣaṁ tam eva /
vijñāyatāṁ kva pratigacchatīti tathety athainaṁ puruṣo ’nvagacchat // 10.12 //

Then, having learned the motive, having been motivated in his own mind, the king told that same man: / “Let me know in what direction he is going!” Below the surface, the suggestion is that the bodhisattva, even before his realization of the truth, was able to stimulate Śreṇya’s will to the truth – there being, for bodhisattvas and buddhas alike, such a thing as a right direction. That direction, verses 14 and 15, implicitly suggest, is primarily upward. 11 The man said “So be it!” and followed him. //10.12//

a-lola-cakṣur yuga-mātra-darśī nivṛtta-vāg yantrita-manda-gāmī /
cacāra bhikṣāṁ sa tu bhikṣu-varyo nidhāya gātrāṇi calaṁ ca cetaḥ // 10.13 //

Looking, with eyes that did not dance, a yoke’s length ahead; not speaking; moving slowly and with restraint, / He the best of beggars, however, went begging – placing within limits his limbs and the inconstant mind. //10.13//

ādāya bhaikṣaṁ ca yathopapannaṁ yayau gireḥ prasravaṇaṁ viviktam /
nyāyena tatrābhyavahṛtya cainan mahī-dharaṁ pāṇḍavam āruroha // 10.14 //

Having accepted whatever food was offered, he went to a solitary mountain spring, / And there, according to principle, that food he did eat, and the hill of the Pāṇḍavas he did ascend. Āruroha, from ā-√ruh, to rise up. 12 //10.14//

tasminn avau lodhra-vanopagūḍhe mayūra-nāda-pratipūrṇa-kuñje /
kāṣāya-vāsāḥ sa babhau nṛ-sūryo yathodayasyopari bāla-sūryaḥ // 10.15 //

On that hill covered with lodhra A tree (Symplocos Racemosa) that has yellow flowers. So the hill was yellow, like a mountain with the morning sun on it, while the bodhisattva in his yellow-red robe was like the sun. 13 groves, its thickets filled with the crying of peacocks, / Wearing the ochre robe, that human sun shone forth like the morning sun up above the eastern mountain. Udaya, which means the eastern mountain (behind which the sun rises), is lit. “going up” (ud- = up, aya = going). Upari means upward, up above. 14 //10.15//

tatrainam ālokya sa rāja-bhṛtyaḥ śreṇyāya rājñe kathayāṁ cakāra /
saṁśrutya rājā sa ca bāhumānyāt tatra pratasthe nibhṛtānuyātraḥ // 10.16 //

That servant of the king, having seen him there, reported back to King Śreṇya. / And the king, having listened, out of great respect, set off in that direction, with only a modest retinue. //10.16//

sa pāṇḍavaṁ pāṇḍava-tulya-vīryaḥ śailottamaṁ śaila-samāna-varṣmā /
maulī-dharaḥ siṁha-gatir nṛ-siṁhaś calat-saṭaḥ siṁha ivāruroha // 10.17 //

The hill of the Pāṇḍavas, that most exalted of rocks, he of rock-like stature and heroic power on a par with the Pāṇḍavas, The story of the epic battle between the Pāṇḍavas (descended from Paṇḍu) and their cousins the Kauravas (descended from Kuru) is told in the Mahā-bhārata and also in the Bhagavad-gita. 15 / A human lion, wearing the royal headdress and going with a lion’s gait, like a lion with bouncing mane – that hill [King Śreṇya also] did ascend. Āruroha, again, from ā-√ruh, to rise up. 16 //10.17//

tataḥ sma tasyopari śṛṅga-bhūtaṁ śāntendriyaṁ paśyati bodhisattvam /
paryaṅkam āsthāya virocamānaṁ śaśāṅkam udyantam ivābhra-kūñjāt // 10.18 //

Then he saw, up above Upari, again, means upward, up above17 that hill, being in the nature of a peak, the bodhisattva, the power of his senses quieted, / Coming back to sitting with legs fully crossed, and shining forth, like the moon rising Udyantam, again, is from ud-√i, to go up. 18 out of a thicket of clouds. //10.18//

taṁ rūpa-lakṣmyā ca śamena caiva dharmasya nirmāṇam ivopadiṣṭam /
sa-vismayaḥ praśrayavān narendraḥ svayambhuvaṁ śakra ivopatasthe // 10.19 //

To him who, with his wealth of handsome form and his calmness, was like a work of dharma built to specification, / The first among men, filled with wonder, respectfully drew near, as to ‘Self-Existing’ Brahmā the mighty Indra drew near. Upa-√sthā means to place oneself near, to bring oneself into the presence of. There is a dual sense of Śreṇya (1) following the bodhisattva, relatively speaking, in the right direction (upward); and (2) being near to existential perfection, as symbolized by the sun (verse 15), the moon (verse 18), and Svayam-bhū, “Self-Existence” (verses 2, 19). 19 //10.19//

taṁ nyāyato nyāya-vidāṁ variṣṭhaṁ sametya papraccha ca dhātu-sāmyam /
sa cāpy avocat sadṛśena sāmnā nṛ-paṁ manaḥ-svāsthyam an-āmayaṁ ca // 10.20 //

Having come, in a proper way, into the presence of the best of knowers of a proper way, the king asked after the balance of his bodily humours; / And he also, in a suitably equable manner, spoke to a protector of men, of mental well-being and freedom from disease. //10.20//

tataḥ śucau vāraṇa-karṇa-nīle śilā-tale saṁniṣasāda rājā /
nṛpopaviśyānumataś ca tasya bhāvaṁ vijijñāsur idaṁ babhāṣe // 10.21 //

Then, on a rock as grey as an elephant’s ear, on a clean slab of rock, the king sat down; / And, while sitting as a protector of men, being allowed by the other, Anumatas tasya. Ostensible meaning: with his permission. Hidden meaning: letting it do it. 20 and wanting to know the reality of that other, Tasya bhāvam. Ostensible meaning: his intention/disposition. Hidden meaning: the reality of it. 21 he spoke as follows: //10.21//

prītiḥ parā me bhavataḥ kulena kramāgatā caiva parīkṣitā ca /
jātā vivakṣā suta yā yato me tasmād idaṁ sneha-vaco nibodha // 10.22 //

“I have, in connection with your noble house, a love of the highest order, transmitted from offspring to offspring, and tested well. In the hidden meaning, Śreṇya is presaging devotion to a one-to-one transmission in the lineage of Zen patriarchs and matriarchs. 22 / Hence the desire, O offspring, which is born in me to speak. Therefore, to this expression of loving devotion, give your attention. Ostensible meaning: Listen to these affectionate words! Hidden meaning: Be mindful, in the practice of sitting-meditation – as the Buddha, putting compassion into practice, taught it. 23 //10.22//

āditya-pūrvaṁ vipulaṁ kulaṁ te navaṁ vayo dīptam idaṁ vapuś ca /
kasmād iyaṁ te matir akrameṇa bhaikṣāka evābhiratā na rājye // 10.23 //

Mighty is your house, with a son of ‘The Infinite’ Aditi as its founder; The Śākyas were said to be descended from Īkṣvāku, the first king of the solar dynasty. Here āditya (son of Aditi) means the sun. 24 young is your life; and shining is this your handsome form – / From where came this will of yours which, all of a sudden, is set not on kingship but on abject begging? Ostensibly Śreṇya’s question is a rhetorical one, expressing surprise. Below the surface, he is drawing our attention to the unfathomable nature of something ineffable. 25 //10.23//

gātraṁ hi te lohita-candanārhaṁ kāṣāya-saṁśleṣam an-arham etat /
hastaḥ prajā-pālana-yogya eṣa bhoktuṁ na cārhaḥ para-dattam annam // 10.24 //

For your body is worthy of red sandal unguents, not of contact with reddy-brown cloth. / This hand is fitted for the protection of subjects, and not for the eating of food given by others. //10.24//

tat saumya rājyaṁ yadi paitṛkaṁ tvaṁ snehāt pitur necchasi vikrameṇa /
na ca kramaṁ marṣayituṁ matis te bhuṇkṣvārdham asmad-viṣayasya śīghram // 10.25 //

So if, my friend, out of love for your father, you do not wish by forcible means to inherit your father’s kingdom, / But you have no mind to hold out for a regular succession, then enjoy possession of half of my realm, right away! //10.25//

evaṁ hi na syāt svajanāvamardaḥ kāla-krameṇāpi śama-śrayā śrīḥ /
tasmāt kuruṣva praṇayaṁ mayi tvaṁ sadbhiḥ sahīyā hi satāṁ samṛddhiḥ // 10.26 //

For in this way there will be no inflicting of pain on your own kin, and royal power will come peacefully and in a timely and orderly manner. / Do me this kindness, therefore, because in association with the good is there growth of the good. //10.26//

atha tv idānīṁ kula-garvitatvād asmāsu viśrambha-guṇo na te ’sti /
vyūḍhāny anīkāni vigāhya bāṇair mayā sahāyena parān jigīṣa // 10.27 //

Or if, for the present, pride in your own noble house precludes you from placing your trust in ours, / Then piercing with arrows the massed ranks of armies, seek, with me as an ally, to conquer foreign foes. //10.27//

tad buddhim atrānyatarāṁ vṛṇīṣva dharmārtha-kāmān vidhivad bhajasva /
vyatyasya rāgād iha hi tri-vargaṁ pretyeha ca bhraṁśam avāpnuvanti // 10.28 //

So decide, in respect of these two options, between one and the other, and pursue dharma, wealth, and pleasure in a principled manner – / For when men in this world, because of passion, overdo [any one of] the triple set, in both this world and the next they suffer ruination. //10.28//

yo hy artha-dharmau paripīḍya kāmaḥ Kāmah is nominative singular of kāma, whose meanings include 1. desire, 2. pleasure, and 3. sensual love. See also note to verse 33 below. 26 syād dharma-kāmau paribhūya cārthaḥ /
kāmārthayoś coparameṇa dharmas tyājyaḥ sa kṛtsno yadi kāṅkṣito ’rthaḥ // 10.29 //

For when pleasure overwhelms wealth and dharma, or wealth overpowers dharma and pleasure, / Or dharma spells the death of pleasure and wealth – we must abandon it, if we aspire to meaning in the round. //10.29//

tasmāt tri-vargasya niṣevaṇena tvaṁ rūpam etat saphalaṁ kuruṣva /
dharmārtha-kāmādhigamaṁ hy an-ūnaṁ nṛṇām an-ūnaṁ puruṣārtham āhuḥ // 10.30 //

Therefore by devotion to the triple set let this splendid frame of yours bear fruit. / For the integral attainment of dharma, wealth and pleasure is for mankind, they say, the whole meaning of a human life. //10.30//

tan niṣphalau nārhasi kartum etau pīnau bhujau cāpa-vikarṣaṇārhau /
māndhātṛvaj jetum imau hi yogyau lokān api trīn iha kiṁ punar gām // 10.31 //

So do not render fruitless these muscular arms that were meant to draw a bow; / For, like Māndhātṛ, these two [arms] are capable of conquering even the three worlds here and now, let alone the earth. Cf. the bodhisattva’s reply in the next canto: Even as heaven rained down upon him golden rain after he had conquered all four continents / And obtained half of Mighty Indra’s throne, there was for Māndhātṛ in outer realms only dissatisfaction. //BC11.13//27 //10.31//

snehena khalv etad ahaṁ bravīmi naiśvarya-rāgeṇa na vismayena /
imaṁ hi dṛṣṭvā tava bhikṣu-veṣaṁ jātānukampo ’smy api cāgatāśruḥ // 10.32 //

I say this with sheer affection – not with eager desire for dominion and not with doubt. / For, seeing this beggar’s clothing of yours, I am moved to compassion and visited by tears. //10.32//

yāvat sva-vaṁśa-pratirūpa-rūpaṁ na te jarābhyety abhibhūya bhūyaḥ /
tad bhuṇkṣva bhikṣāśrama-kāma kāmān kāle ’si kartā priya-dharma dharmam // 10.33 //

Therefore, before the beauty that befits your noble house is overpowered by the onset of ageing, / Enjoy desires, Kāmān is accusative plural of kāma, translated in this Canto, as one of the triple set, as “pleasure.” 28 O desirer of the beggar’s stage, and in due time, O devotee of dharma, you will practise dharma. //10.33//

śaknoti jīrṇaḥ khalu dharmam āptuṁ kāmopabhogeṣv agatir jarāyāḥ /
ataś ca yūnaḥ kathayanti kāmān madhyasya vittaṁ sthavirasya dharmam // 10.34 //

One who is old, assuredly, is able to realize dharma. In old age the drive is absent for enjoyment of sensual pleasures. / And so pleasures, they say, belong to the young; acquisition of substance to one in the middle; dharma to a mature elder. Ostensibly madhyasya vittam (wealth of the middle) and sthavirasya dharmam (dharma of the elder) are two different things belonging to two different age-groups. But there is no particle ca. So the ironic intention might be that a true elder (Sanskrit: sthavira; Pali: thera) is of the middle, and his or her dharma is not only abstract teaching, but something really to be acquired. 29 //10.34//

dharmasya cārthasya ca jīva-loke pratyarthi-bhūtāni hi yauvanāni /
saṁrakṣyamāṇāny api dur-grahāṇi kāmā yatas tena yathā haranti // 10.35 //

For, in the world of the living, youthful indiscretions are the enemy of dharma and of wealth. / However well we guard against those immature acts, to get a grip on them is hard, for which reason desires duly prevail. //10.35//

vayāṁsi jīrṇāni vimarśavanti dhīrāṇy avasthāna-parāyaṇāni /
alpena yatnena śamātmakāni bhavanty agatyaiva ca lajjayā ca // 10.36 //

The old are contemplative, steady, intent on stability; / They become peaceful with little bother – through sheer helplessness, and humbleness. Ostensibly Śreṇya is describing people rendered impotent and timid by old age. Ironically, he is also describing those whose practice is mature, in which case agati, being helpless, is an expression of non-doing; and lajjā, modesty, is absence of pride and awareness of faults. 30 //10.36//

ataś ca lolaṁ viṣaya-pradhānaṁ pramattam akṣāntam adīrgha-darśi /
bahu-cchalaṁ yauvanam abhyatītya nistīrya kāntāram ivāśvasanti // 10.37 //

And so, having outgrown the fickle years whose main concern is objects, having got over heedless, impatient, short-sighted immaturity, / Having passed beyond pretense-filled adolescence, they breathe again, as if having crossed a wasteland. Ostensibly Śreṇya is describing old folk in retirement homes, but in the hidden meaning buddhas who have crossed beyond the suffering of saṁsāra. 31 //10.37//

tasmād adhīraṁ capala-pramādi navaṁ vayas tāvad idaṁ vyapaitu /
kāmasya pūrvaṁ hi vayaḥ śaravyaṁ na śakyate rakṣitum indriyebhyaḥ // 10.38 //

Just let pass, therefore, this irresolute phase, this fickle and heedless phase of juvenility; / For the first flush is the target of Desire and cannot be protected from the power of the senses. The hidden meaning is the practical injunction not to do the wrong thing, here and now, by letting a momentary impulse pass, and not acting on it – the principle of free won’t. In this sense, then, Śreṇya, has drawn very near – without recognizing just how close he has drawn to the Buddha’s truth. In this sense, we can understand the Canto title, below the surface, as suggesting not only Śreṇya’s misguided proposal to the prince, but also Śreṇya’s drawing near to the truth. 32 //10.38//

atho cikīrṣā tava dharma eva yajasva yajñaṁ kula-dharma eṣaḥ /
yajñair adhiṣṭhāya hi nāka-pṛṣṭhaṁ yayau marutvān api nāka-pṛṣṭham // 10.39 //

Now if your desire is to practise nothing but dharma, then offer up the act of offering, Yajasva yajṅam. Ostensible meaning: offer sacrifices! Hidden meaning: offer up acts of offering! Ostensibly Śreṇya is urging the bodhisattva, as a prince, to offer up oblations into the sacred fire. But verb and object from the same root, yaj, suggests the goalless offering of acting for the sake of acting. 33 as is the dharma of your noble house; / For, having gone, by means of acts of offering, up to the upper reaches of heaven, even ‘Marut-attended’ Indra, by means of acts of offering, reached those uppermost reaches. //10.39//

suvarṇa-keyūra-vidaṣṭa-bāhavo maṇi-pradīpojjvala-citra-maulayaḥ /
nṛparṣayas tāṁ hi gatiṁ gatā makhaiḥ śrameṇa yām eva mahārṣayo yayuḥ // 10.40 //

For, with arms hugged by golden bands, with conspicuous crowns blazing with the light of gems, Golden bands, as previously (see e.g. BC5.50; 5.81) seem in the hidden meaning to suggest vital energy; similarly for illuminated crowns. 34 / Seers who were protectors of men have walked that same path, by their sacrifices, which the maharishis, the great seers, reached by their hard practice.” //10.40//

ity evaṁ magadha-patir vaco babhāṣe yaḥ samyag valabhid iva dhruvam babhāṣe /
tac-chrutvā na sa vicacāla rāja-sūnuḥ kailāso girir iva naika-citra-sānuḥ // 10.41 //

Thus spoke the ruler of the Magadhas, who talked straight, like “Force-destroying” Indra addressing “Immovable” Brahmā. Dhruvam, “the Immovable,” like Svayaṁ-bhū, “the Self-Existent,” is a name applied to Brahmā but also sometimes to Śiva and Viṣṇu. 35 / Having heard that speech, the son of the king was not moved, like Mount Kailāsa Kailāsa is thought to be derived from kelāsa, meaning crystal. In ancient Indian mythology, Kailāsa is the fabulous residence of Kubera, Lord of Wealth. As an actual mountain (Mount Kailash), it is a peak in the Kailash Range (Gangdisê Mountains), forming part of the Transhimalaya in Tibet, where it does seem to protrude from the earth like a giant crystal. 36 with its many conspicuous summits. //10.41//

iti buddha-carite mahā-kāvye ‘śvaghoṣa-kṛte
śreṇyābhigamano nāma daśamaḥ sargaḥ // 10 //

The 10th canto, titled Śreṇya Drawing Near,
in this epic tale of awakened action composed by Aśvaghoṣa.